All the information needed to make every protein in our cells is contained in our DNA. The instructions in DNA are transcribed into temporary RNA molecules, and those RNA molecules are then translated into functional proteins. Since being discovered over the course of many years in the mid-20th century, this process of DNA to RNA to protein has been dubbed the “central dogma of biology” and is one of the most essential processes to life on Earth.
The processes of protein transcription and translation are very tightly controlled by the cell. It’s very important that correct proteins are made at the correct time, in the correct quantities, and in the correct shape. Defects in any of these processes can be associated with diseases.